PCM Phase Change Material Introduction
Ice changes phase when heated at 0 deg C and is converted to water. Ice is an excellent phase change material.
It absorbs a large amount of heat in the process of changing from solid to liquid phase resulting in cooling of the surroundings. But what if you require this heat at a temperature other than zero? This 'heat-on-demand' requirement is satisfied by PCM phase change material, which works at specified temperatures. Inspite of the research on the subject, scientists did not manage to develop a suitable phase change material, which works at a temperature closer to human comfort. PCM Energy has perfected the art and the commercial viability has been demonstrated by various users. For use of PCM-AC in Europe, we recommend Autarkis of Netherlands.
Phase Change Materials PCM can be broadly classed as Organic and Inorganic.
Users rarely specify the use of Organic PCM. Latest TM can offer Organic PCM in low temperature range. Organic items are expensive and they have average Latent Heat per unit volume and low density. Most items in organic range are combustible in nature.
Inorganic Thermal Salt is generally Hydrated Salt based material. Academicians are likely to misguide you into using pure hydrated salts like Sodium Sulphate Decahydrate and so on. Hydrated salts have a number of hydrates and an anhydrous form leading to stratification of material and loss of Latent Heat recovery with time. Hydrated salts also have a sub-cooling tendency. Old generation Thermal Salt manufacturers managed to add performance-enhancing agents. These additives do help in delaying the degradation of the thermal salt for say 100 cycles or thereabout. However, they do not address the basic reasons due to which sub-cooling and degradation happens. Earlier researchers emphasized that it is beneficial to use impure grades of base material as it promotes the nucleation and prevents sub-cooling. However, impurities also promoted nucleation of undesirable hydrates leading to stratification. Experts on crystallography have managed to identify the “Preferred Crystal Nucleation” method. It consists of a “Cold Finger” that nucleates and promotes the growth of desired crystals and “Detoxification” or “Selective Elimination” whereby any impurity that promotes the growth of undesirable crystals is removed. The current methods of Thermal Salt manufacturing are like the new generation “Combination Drugs”. Our team of scientists and engineers has arrived at a customized PCM solution for air conditioning need.
Inorganic PCM is always recommended as they are non inflammable.
Phase change materials (PCM) can reduce heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) costs by a number of different mechanisms, including: eliminating air conditioning costs by storing nighttime coolness for use during the day, eliminating heating costs by storing daytime warmness for use during the night, and by load-shifting of electricity through thermal storage. Well-designed strategies and utilization of phase change materials could easily reduce HVAC-related carbon dioxide emissions by more than 50% from current levels.
• PCM in building walls & Ceiling.
The first method, where the heat or cold stored is automatically released when indoor or outdoor temperatures change beyond the melting point. Thermal energy storage in the walls, ceiling and floor of buildings may be enhanced by encapsulating phase change materials (PCM) within these surfaces. They can either capture solar energy directly or thermal energy through natural convection. Increasing the thermal storage capacity of a building can increase human comfort by decreasing the frequency of internal air temperature change so that the indoor air temperature remains at desired temperature for a long period of time.
• PCM in separate heat exchanger cum storage.
The second method is active systems, where the stored heat or cold is in containment thermally separated from the building by insulation. Therefore, the heat or cold is used only on demand and not automatically.
Please visit Phase Change Material Air Condition for details of energy saving by PCM.
If you need to understand more on Phase Change Material then you may go in the following order:
Introduction to PCM Air Condition
Phase Change Material Non Hazardous Salts
Peak Load Shifting in AC Air Condition
After reading this much you may shift below the horizontal line. You may also check the following pages:
Energy Saving tips for Lighting, Insulation and Windows, Renewable Energy, Air Change Rate etc
Phase Change Material for Electronic Comfort
PCM for Green House.
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